Alminger M, Eklund-Jonsson C. Whole-grain cereal products based on a high-fibre barley or oat genotype lower post-prandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy humans. Eur J Nutr. 2008;47(6):294-300. doi:10.1007/s00394-008-0724-9.


Rebello CJ, Chu YF, Johnson WD, et al. The role of meal viscosity and oat β-glucan characteristics in human appetite control: a randomized crossover trial. Nutr J. 2014;13:49. Published 2014 May 28. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-13-49


Valeur J, Puaschitz NG, Midtvedt T, Berstad A. Oatmeal porridge: impact on microflora-associated characteristics in healthy subjects. Br J Nutr. 2016;115(1):62-67. doi:10.1017/S0007114515004213


Whitehead A, Beck EJ, Tosh S, Wolever TM. Cholesterol-lowering effects of oat β-glucan: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(6):1413-1421. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.086108



Flamm G, Glinsmann W, Kritchevsky D, Prosky L, Roberfroid M. Inulin and oligofructose as dietary fiber: a review of the evidence. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2001;41(5):353-362. doi:10.1080/20014091091841


Kelly G. Inulin-type prebiotics--a review: part 1. Altern Med Rev. 2008;13(4):315-329.


Macfarlane GT, Steed H, Macfarlane S. Bacterial metabolism and health-related effects of galacto-oligosaccharides and other prebiotics. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;104(2):305-344. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2007.03520.x



Speciale G, Jin Y, Davies GJ, Williams SJ, Goddard-Borger ED. YihQ is a sulfoquinovosidase that cleaves sulfoquinovosyl diacylglyceride sulfolipids. Nat Chem Biol. 2016;12(4):215-217. doi:10.1038/nchembio.2023


Morris MC, Wang Y, Barnes LL, Bennett DA, Dawson-Hughes B, Booth SL. Nutrients and bioactives in green leafy vegetables and cognitive decline: Prospective study. Neurology. 2018;90(3):e214-e222. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000004815


Shammas MA. Telomeres, lifestyle, cancer, and aging. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2011;14(1):28-34. doi:10.1097/MCO.0b013e32834121b1



Karkos PD, Leong SC, Karkos CD, Sivaji N, Assimakopoulos DA. Spirulina in clinical practice: evidence-based human applications. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:531053. doi:10.1093/ecam/nen058


Kim HM, Lee EH, Cho HH, Moon YH. Inhibitory effect of mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions in rats by spirulina. Biochem Pharmacol. 1998;55(7):1071-1076. doi:10.1016/s0006-2952(97)00678-3


  1. V. Mani, S. Desai & U. Iyer (2000) Studies on the Long-Term Effect of Spirulina Supplementation on Serum Lipid Profile and Glycated Proteins in NIDDM Patients, Journal of Nutraceuticals, Functional & Medical Foods, 2:3, 25-32, DOI: 10.1300/J133v02n03_03


Reddy MC, Subhashini J, Mahipal SV, et al. C-Phycocyanin, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, induces apoptosis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;304(2):385-392. doi:10.1016/s0006-291x(03)00586-2,




Stress & Anxiety.

A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of Ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults. Chandrasekhar, K., Kapoor, J., & Anishetty, S. (2012). Indian journal of psychological medicine, 34(3), 255.


Cardiorespiratory Endurance.

Efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) in improving cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy athletic adults Choudhary, B., Shetty, A., & Langade, D. G. (2015). Ayu, 36(1), 63.


Testosterone Male Sexual Function.

Clinical Evaluation of the Spermatogenic Activity of the Root Extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in Oligospermic Males: A Pilot Study Ambiye, V. R., Langade, D., Dongre, S., Aptikar, P., Kulkarni, M., & Dongre, A. (2013).  Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013.


Testosterone, Muscle Strength & Recovery.

Examining the effect of Withania somnifera supplementation on muscle strength and recovery: a randomized controlled trial Wankhede, S., Langade, D., Joshi, K., Sinha, S. R., & Bhattacharyya, S. (2015). Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(1), 43.


Womens Sexual Function.

Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) Root Extract in Improving Sexual Function in Women: A Pilot Study Dongre, S., Langade, D., & Bhattacharyya, S. (2015). BioMed research international, 2015.


Stress & Weight Management.

Body Weight Management in Adults Under Chronic Stress Through Treatment With Ashwagandha Root Extract: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial Choudhary, D., Bhattacharyya, S., & Joshi, K. (2017). Journal of evidence-based complementary & alternative medicine, 22(1), 96-106.


Memory & Cognition.

Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) Root Extract in Improving Memory and Cognitive Functions Choudhary, D., Bhattacharyya, S., & Bose, S. (2017). Journal of Dietary Supplements, 1-14. Chicago


Anti Aging.

Withania somnifera root extract extends lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans Kumar, R., Gupta, K., Saharia, K., Pradhan, D., & Subramaniam, J. R. (2013). Annals of neurosciences, 20(1), 13.


Withania somnifera Root Extract Enhances Telomerase Activity in the Human HeLa Cell Line Raguraman, V., & Subramaniam, J. R. (2016). Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 7(04), 199.


Thyroid Function.

Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha Root Extract in Subclinical Hypothyroid Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. Sharma, A. K., Basu, I., & Singh, S. (2017).The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine.



Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha ( Withania somnifera) Root Extract in Insomnia and Anxiety: A Double – blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled study. Langade, D., Kanchi, S., Salve, J., Debnath, K., & Ambegaokar, D (2019). Cureus, 11(9), e5797.


General Health Improvement for Senior Citizens.

Efficacy and Tolerability of Ashwagandha Root Extract in the Elderly for Improvement of General Well-being and Sleep: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study. Kelgane, S. B., Salve, J., Sampara, P., & Debnath, K. (2020)l. Cureus, 12(2), e7083.



  • "Sports Nutrition Ingredient of the year"
    The NutraIngredients Asia, 2018
  • "SFE-Herbal Industry Leader Award"
    2016, Frost & Sullivan, 2014
  • "Product Innovation in Botanicals"
    award Natural Products Expo West, 2013
  • "Best Botanical Ingredient"
    Natural Products Expo West, 2013
  • "Innovative Ingredient of the Year"
    Panacea, 2012



Sunyecz JA. The use of calcium and vitamin D in the management of osteoporosis. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008;4(4):827-836. doi:10.2147/tcrm.s3552

Dunne S and Bell A PhD, RD, Vitamin D’s Role in Health — Deterministic or Indeterminate?, 2014; Today’s Dietitian, Vol. 16 No. 7 P. 48

Fahd Adeeb, Maria Usman Khan, Xia Li, Austin G. Stack, Joseph Devlin, Alexander D. Fraser, "High Vitamin D Levels May Downregulate Inflammation in Patients with Behçet’s Disease", International Journal of Inflammation, vol. 2017, Article ID 8608716, 7 pages, 2017.

Holick MF. Vitamin D: importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(3):362-371. 

Grober U, Spitz J, Reichrath J, Kisters K, Holick MF. Vitamin D: Update 2013: From rickets prophylaxis to general preventive healthcare. Dermatoendocrinol. 2013;5(3):331-347.

Smolders J, Thewissen M, Damoiseaux J. Control of T cell activation by vitamin D. Nat Immunol. 2011;12(1):3; author reply 3-4.

Aranow C. Vitamin D and the immune system. J Investig Med. 2011;59(6):881-886.

Sigmund CD. Regulation of renin expression and blood pressure by vitamin D(3). J Clin Invest. 2002;110(2):155-156. 

Thiele DK, Senti JL, Anderson CM. Maternal vitamin D supplementation to meet the needs of the breastfed infant: a systematic review. J Hum Lact. 2013;29(2):163-170. 

Liu W, Zhang L, Xu HJ, et al. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Vitamin D in Tumorigenesis. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(9):2736. Published 2018 Sep 13. doi:10.3390/ijms19092736



Watanabe T. Dietary biotin deficiency affects reproductive function and prenatal development in hamsters. J Nutr. 1993;123(12):2101-2108. doi:10.1093/jn/123.12.2101

Colombo VE, Gerber F, Bronhofer M, Floersheim GL. Treatment of brittle fingernails and onychoschizia with biotin: scanning electron microscopy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;23(6 Pt 1):1127-1132. doi:10.1016/0190-9622(90)70345-i

Zempleni J, Hassan YI, Wijeratne SS. Biotin and biotinidase deficiency. Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab. 2008;3(6):715-724. doi:10.1586/17446651.3.6.715

Seymons K, De Moor A, De Raeve H, Lambert J. Dermatologic signs of biotin deficiency leading to the diagnosis of multiple carboxylase deficiency. Pediatr Dermatol. 2004;21(3):231-235. doi:10.1111/j.0736-8046.2004.21308.x  

Maebashi, Masaru & Makino, Yoshio & Furukawa, Yuji & Ohinata, Kosaku & Kimura, Shuichi & Sato, Takao. (1993). Therapeutic Evaluation of the Effect of Biotin on Hyperglycemia in Patients with Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition. 14. 211-218. 10.3164/jcbn.14.211.

Geohas J, Daly A, Juturu V, Finch M, Komorowski JR. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination reduces atherogenic index of plasma in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Am J Med Sci. 2007;333(3):145-153. doi:10.1097/MAJ.0b013e318031b3c9

Sedel F, Bernard D, Mock DM, Tourbah A. Targeting demyelination and virtual hypoxia with high-dose biotin as a treatment for progressive multiple sclerosis. Neuropharmacology. 2016;110(Pt B):644-653. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.08.028

Sedel F, Papeix C, Bellanger A, et al. High doses of biotin in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis: a pilot study. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2015;4(2):159-169. doi:10.1016/j.msard.2015.01.005

Revilla-Monsalve C, Zendejas-Ruiz I, Islas-Andrade S, et al. Biotin supplementation reduces plasma triacylglycerol and VLDL in type 2 diabetic patients and in nondiabetic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. Biomed Pharmacother. 2006;60(4):182-185. doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2006.03.005



Scheiber IF, Mercer JF, Dringen R. Metabolism and functions of copper in brain. Prog Neurobiol. 2014;116:33-57. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2014.01.002

Xu J, Church SJ, Patassini S, et al. Evidence for widespread, severe brain copper deficiency in Alzheimer's dementia. Metallomics. 2017;9(8):1106-1119. doi:10.1039/c7mt00074j

Khaleeli Zhaleh, Healy Daniel G, Briddon Anthony, Lunn Michael P, Reilly Mary M, Land John et al. Copper deficiency as a treatable cause of poor balance BMJ 2010; 340 :c508

Maura Pellei,*a   Grazia Papini,a   Andrea Trasatti,a   Marco Giorgetti,*b   Domenica Tonelli,b   Marco Minicucci,c   Cristina Marzano,*d   Valentina Gandin,d   Giuliana Aquilanti,e   Alessandro Dolmellad  and  Carlo Santinia  Nitroimidazole and glucosamine conjugated heteroscorpionate ligands and related copper(ii) complexes. Syntheses, biological activity and XAS studies, Dalton Trans., 2011,40, 9877-9888!divAbstract

Zheng J, Mao X, Ling J, He Q, Quan J. Low serum levels of zinc, copper, and iron as risk factors for osteoporosis: a meta-analysis. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2014;160(1):15-23. doi:10.1007/s12011-014-0031-7

Rucker RB, Kosonen T, Clegg MS, et al. Copper, lysyl oxidase, and extracellular matrix protein cross-linking. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;67(5 Suppl):996S-1002S. doi:10.1093/ajcn/67.5.996S


Sarah Blasiga Peter Kühnenb Andrea Schuettea Oliver Blankensteinb Jens Mittagc Lutz Positive correlation of thyroid hormones and serum copper in children with congenital hypothyroidism, Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 37, September 2016, Pages 90-95

Pineles SL, Wilson CA, Balcer LJ, Slater R, Galetta SL. Combined optic neuropathy and myelopathy secondary to copper deficiency. Surv Ophthalmol. 2010;55(4):386-392. doi:10.1016/j.survophthal.2010.02.002

Naismith RT, Shepherd JB, Weihl CC, Tutlam NT, Cross AH. Acute and bilateral blindness due to optic neuropathy associated with copper deficiency. Arch Neurol. 2009;66(8):1025-1027. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2009.70



Ball MJ, Bartlett MA. Dietary intake and iron status of Australian vegetarian women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70(3):353-358. doi:10.1093/ajcn/70.3.353

Murray-Kolb LE, Beard JL. Iron treatment normalizes cognitive functioning in young women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(3):778-787. doi:10.1093/ajcn/85.3.778

Jáuregui-Lobera I. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2014;10:2087-2095. Published 2014 Nov 10. doi:10.2147/NDT.S72491

Li Z, Li B, Song X, Zhang D. Dietary zinc and iron intake and risk of depression: A meta-analysis. Psychiatry Res. 2017;251:41-47. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2017.02.006

Jere D. Haas, Thomas Brownlie, IV, Iron Deficiency and Reduced Work Capacity: A Critical Review of the Research to Determine a Causal Relationship, The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 131, Issue 2, February 2001, Pages 676S–690S,

Chung J, Chen C, Paw BH. Heme metabolism and erythropoiesis. Curr Opin Hematol. 2012;19(3):156-162. doi:10.1097/MOH.0b013e328351c48b

Fernández-Gaxiola AC, De-Regil LM. Intermittent iron supplementation for reducing anaemia and its associated impairments in menstruating women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(12):CD009218. Published 2011 Dec 7. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009218.pub2


Folic Acid.

Crider KS, Bailey LB, Berry RJ. Folic acid food fortification-its history, effect, concerns, and future directions. Nutrients. 2011;3(3):370-384. doi:10.3390/nu3030370

US Preventive Services Task Force, Bibbins-Domingo K, Grossman DC, et al. Folic Acid Supplementation for the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA. 2017;317(2):183-189. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.19438

Crider KS, Yang TP, Berry RJ, Bailey LB. Folate and DNA methylation: a review of molecular mechanisms and the evidence for folate's role. Adv Nutr. 2012;3(1):21-38. doi:10.3945/an.111.000992

Blount BC, Mack MM, Wehr CM, et al. Folate deficiency causes uracil misincorporation into human DNA and chromosome breakage: implications for cancer and neuronal damage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94(7):3290-3295. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.7.3290

Ganguly P, Alam SF. Role of homocysteine in the development of cardiovascular disease. Nutr J. 2015;14:6. Published 2015 Jan 10. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-14-6

Rebecca J Schmidt, Daniel J Tancredi, Sally Ozonoff, Robin L Hansen, Jaana Hartiala, Hooman Allayee, Linda C Schmidt, Flora Tassone, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Maternal periconceptional folic acid intake and risk of autism spectrum disorders and developmental delay in the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment) case-control study, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 96, Issue 1, July 2012, Pages 80–89,

Godfrey PS, Toone BK, Carney MW, et al. Enhancement of recovery from psychiatric illness by methylfolate. Lancet. 1990;336(8712):392-395. doi:10.1016/0140-6736(90)91942-4 

Mahmood Lubna The metabolic processes of folic acid and Vitamin B12 deficiency 2014,  Volume:  1, Issue Number:  1, Page: 5-9;year=2014;volume=1;issue=1;spage=5;epage=9;aulast=Mahmood

Lasisi AO, Fehintola FA, Yusuf OB. Age-related hearing loss, vitamin B12, and folate in the elderly. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;143(6):826-830. doi:10.1016/j.otohns.2010.08.031



Mahmoud MM, El-Mazary AA, Maher RM, Saber MM. Zinc, ferritin, magnesium and copper in a group of Egyptian children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Ital J Pediatr. 2011;37:60. Published 2011 Dec 29. doi:10.1186/1824-7288-37-60

Eby GA 3rd, Eby KL. Magnesium for treatment-resistant depression: a review and hypothesis. Med Hypotheses. 2010;74(4):649-660. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2009.10.051

Fox C, Ramsoomair D, Carter C. Magnesium: its proven and potential clinical significance. South Med J. 2001;94(12):1195-1201.

Guerrero-Romero F, Rodríguez-Morán M. Magnesium improves the beta-cell function to compensate variation of insulin sensitivity: double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Eur J Clin Invest. 2011;41(4):405-410. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2362.2010.02422.x

De Leeuw I, Engelen W, De Block C, Van Gaal L. Long term magnesium supplementation influences favourably the natural evolution of neuropathy in Mg-depleted type 1 diabetic patients (T1dm). Magnes Res. 2004;17(2):109-114.

Wark PA, Lau R, Norat T, Kampman E. Magnesium intake and colorectal tumor risk: a case-control study and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96(3):622-631. doi:10.3945/ajcn.111.030924

Castiglioni S, Cazzaniga A, Albisetti W, Maier JA. Magnesium and osteoporosis: current state of knowledge and future research directions. Nutrients. 2013;5(8):3022-3033. Published 2013 Jul 31. doi:10.3390/nu5083022



Strause L, Saltman P, Smith KT, Bracker M, Andon MB. Spinal bone loss in postmenopausal women supplemented with calcium and trace minerals. J Nutr. 1994;124(7):1060-1064. doi:10.1093/jn/124.7.1060

Benevolenskaia LI, Toroptsova NV, Nikitinskaia OA, et al. Vitrum osteomag v profilaktike osteoporoza u zhenshchin v postmenopauze: rezul'taty sravnitel'nogo otkrytogo mnogotsentrovogo issledovaniia [Vitrum osteomag in prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: results of the comparative open multicenter trial]. Ter Arkh. 2004;76(11):88-93.

Kazi TG, Afridi HI, Kazi N, et al. Copper, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, and zinc levels in biological samples of diabetes mellitus patients. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2008;122(1):1-18. doi:10.1007/s12011-007-8062-y

Koh ES, Kim SJ, Yoon HE, et al. Association of blood manganese level with diabetes and renal dysfunction: a cross-sectional study of the Korean general population. BMC Endocr Disord. 2014;14:24. Published 2014 Mar 8. doi:10.1186/1472-6823-14-24

Takeda A. Manganese action in brain function. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2003;41(1):79-87. doi:10.1016/s0165-0173(02)00234-5

Carl GF, Blackwell LK, Barnett FC, et al. Manganese and epilepsy: brain glutamine synthetase and liver arginase activities in genetically epilepsy prone and chronically seizured rats. Epilepsia. 1993;34(3):441-446.

Soldin OP, Aschner M. Effects of manganese on thyroid hormone homeostasis: potential links. Neurotoxicology. 2007;28(5):951-956. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2007.05.003

Holley AK, Bakthavatchalu V, Velez-Roman JM, St Clair DK. Manganese superoxide dismutase: guardian of the powerhouse. Int J Mol Sci. 2011;12(10):7114-7162. doi:10.3390/ijms12107114

Bae SC, Kim SJ, Sung MK. Inadequate antioxidant nutrient intake and altered plasma antioxidant status of rheumatoid arthritis patients. J Am Coll Nutr. 2003;22(4):311-315. doi:10.1080/07315724.2003.10719309



Mariotti S, Beck-Peccoz P. Physiology of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis. [Updated 2016 Aug 14]. In: Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Boyce A, et al., editors. Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA):, Inc.; 2000-. Available from:

Danforth E Jr, Burger A. The role of thyroid hormones in the control of energy expenditure. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1984;13(3):581-595. doi:10.1016/s0300-595x(84)80039-0

Kostoglou-Athanassiou I, Ntalles K. Hypothyroidism - new aspects of an old disease. Hippokratia. 2010;14(2):82-87.

Beydoun MA, Beydoun HA, Kitner-Triolo MH, Kaufman JS, Evans MK, Zonderman AB. Thyroid hormones are associated with cognitive function: moderation by sex, race, and depressive symptoms. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98(8):3470-3481. doi:10.1210/jc.2013-1813

Delange F. The role of iodine in brain development. Proc Nutr Soc. 2000;59(1):75-79. doi:10.1017/s0029665100000094

Cooke GE, Mullally S, Correia N, O'Mara SM, Gibney J. Hippocampal volume is decreased in adults with hypothyroidism. Thyroid. 2014;24(3):433-440. doi:10.1089/thy.2013.0058

Kapil U. Health consequences of iodine deficiency. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2007;7(3):267-272.

Dillon JC, Milliez J. Reproductive failure in women living in iodine deficient areas of West Africa. BJOG. 2000;107(5):631-636. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.2000.tb13305.x

Carlé A, Pedersen IB, Knudsen N, Perrild H, Ovesen L, Laurberg P. Hypothyroid symptoms and the likelihood of overt thyroid failure: a population-based case-control study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2014;171(5):593-602. doi:10.1530/EJE-14-0481

Grais IM, Sowers JR. Thyroid and the heart. Am J Med. 2014;127(8):691-698. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2014.03.009


Vitamin A.

Lobo V, Patil A, Phatak A, Chandra N. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health. Pharmacogn Rev. 2010;4(8):118-126. doi:10.4103/0973-7847.70902

Gammone MA, Riccioni G, D'Orazio N. Carotenoids: potential allies of cardiovascular health?. Food Nutr Res. 2015;59:26762. Published 2015 Feb 6. doi:10.3402/fnr.v59.26762

She C, Shang F, Zhou K, Liu N. Serum Carotenoids and Risks of Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy in a Chinese Population Sample. Curr Mol Med. 2017;17(4):287-297. doi:10.2174/1566524017666171106112131

Weiss JS, Ellis CN, Headington JT, Tincoff T, Hamilton TA, Voorhees JJ. Topical tretinoin improves photoaged skin. A double-blind vehicle-controlled study [published correction appears in JAMA 1988 Aug 19;260(7):926] [published correction appears in JAMA 1988 Jun 10;259(22):3274]. JAMA. 1988;259(4):527-532.

Maronn M, Allen DM, Esterly NB. Phrynoderma: a manifestation of vitamin A deficiency?... The rest of the story. Pediatr Dermatol. 2005;22(1):60-63. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1470.2005.22113.x

Chen F, Hu J, Liu P, Li J, Wei Z, Liu P. Carotenoid intake and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies. Ann Hematol. 2017;96(6):957-965. doi:10.1007/s00277-016-2898-1

Busada JT, Geyer CB. The Role of Retinoic Acid (RA) in Spermatogonial Differentiation. Biol Reprod. 2016;94(1):10. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.115.135145

Stephensen CB. Vitamin A, infection, and immune function. Annu Rev Nutr. 2001;21:167-192. doi:10.1146/annurev.nutr.21.1.167


B1 Thiamine.

Lu'o'ng Kv, Nguyen LT. Role of thiamine in Alzheimer's disease. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2011;26(8):588-598. doi:10.1177/1533317511432736

Gibson GE, Hirsch JA, Fonzetti P, Jordan BD, Cirio RT, Elder J. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) and dementia. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2016;1367(1):21-30. doi:10.1111/nyas.13031

Peter R. Martin, M.D., Charles K. Singleton, Ph.D., and Susanne Hiller–Sturmhöfel, Ph.D.The Role of Thiamine Deficiency in Alcoholic Brain Disease Alcohol Research & Health. 2003;27(2): 134-42.


Alaei-Shahmiri F, Soares MJ, Zhao Y, Sherriff J. The impact of thiamine supplementation on blood pressure, serum lipids and C-reactive protein in individuals with hyperglycemia: a randomised, double-blind cross-over trial [published correction appears in Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2016 Jan-Mar;10(1):61]. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2015;9(4):213-217. doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2015.04.014


Gibson GE, Hirsch JA, Cirio RT, Jordan BD, Fonzetti P, Elder J. Abnormal thiamine-dependent processes in Alzheimer's Disease. Lessons from diabetes. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2013;55:17-25. doi:10.1016/j.mcn.2012.09.001


Yi Jiang, Pauline E. Jolly, William O. Ellis, Jia-Sheng Wang, Timothy D. Phillips, Jonathan H. Williams, Aflatoxin B1 albumin adduct levels and cellular immune status in Ghanaians, International Immunology, Volume 17, Issue 6, June 2005, Pages 807–814,


Stough C, Scholey A, Lloyd J, Spong J, Myers S, Downey LA. The effect of 90 day administration of a high dose vitamin B-complex on work stress. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2011;26(7):470-476. doi:10.1002/hup.1229


Lonsdale D. A review of the biochemistry, metabolism and clinical benefits of thiamin(e) and its derivatives. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006;3(1):49-59.



Boehnke C, Reuter U, Flach U, Schuh-Hofer S, Einhäupl KM, Arnold G. High-dose riboflavin treatment is efficacious in migraine prophylaxis: an open study in a tertiary care centre. Eur J Neurol. 2004;11(7):475-477. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2004.00813.x


Condò M, Posar A, Arbizzani A, Parmeggiani A. Riboflavin prophylaxis in pediatric and adolescent migraine. J Headache Pain. 2009;10(5):361-365.


Diarmuid M Mulherin, David I Thurnham, R Deva Situnayake, Glutathione reductase activity, riboflavin status, and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 1996;55:837-914

Kuzniarz M, Mitchell P, Cumming RG, Flood VM. Use of vitamin supplements and cataract: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;132(1):19-26. doi:10.1016/s0002-9394(01)00922-9,


Wacker J, Frühauf J, Schulz M, Chiwora FM, Volz J, Becker K. Riboflavin deficiency and preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;96(1):38-44. doi:10.1016/s0029-7844(00)00847-4


Hilary J Powers, Riboflavin (vitamin B-2) and health, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 77, Issue 6, June 2003, Pages 1352–1360,


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Kennedy DO. B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy--A Review. Nutrients. 2016;8(2):68. Published 2016 Jan 27. doi:10.3390/nu8020068


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Doll H, Brown S, Thurston A, Vessey M. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and the premenstrual syndrome: a randomized crossover trial. J R Coll Gen Pract. 1989;39(326):364-368.


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Tisman G, Vu T, Amin J, et al. Measurement of red blood cell-vitamin B12: a study of the correlation between intracellular B12 content and concentrations of plasma holotranscobalamin II. Am J Hematol. 1993;43(3):226-229. doi:10.1002/ajh.2830430313


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Tucker KL, Hannan MT, Qiao N, et al. Low plasma vitamin B12 is associated with lower BMD: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20(1):152-158. doi:10.1359/JBMR.041018


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Vitamin C.

Moretti M, Budni J, Dos Santos DB, et al. Protective effects of ascorbic acid on behavior and oxidative status of restraint-stressed mice. J Mol Neurosci. 2013;49(1):68-79. doi:10.1007/s12031-012-9892-4


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Anderson TW, Suranyi G, Beaton GH. The effect on winter illness of large doses of vitamin C. Can Med Assoc J. 1974;111(1):31-36.


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Vitamin E.

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Rasmussen HM, Johnson EJ. Nutrients for the aging eye. Clin Interv Aging. 2013;8:741-748. doi:10.2147/CIA.S45399


el Attar TM, Lin HS. Effect of vitamin C and vitamin E on prostaglandin synthesis by fibroblasts and squamous carcinoma cells. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1992;47(4):253-257. doi:10.1016/0952-3278(92)90194-n


Moriguchi S, Muraga M. Vitamin E and immunity. Vitam Horm. 2000;59:305-336. doi:10.1016/s0083-6729(00)59011-6


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Thiele JJ, Traber MG, Packer L. Depletion of human stratum corneum vitamin E: an early and sensitive in vivo marker of UV induced photo-oxidation. J Invest Dermatol. 1998;110(5):756-761. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1747.1998.00169.x


Tanaka H, Okada T, Konishi H, Tsuji T. The effect of reactive oxygen species on the biosynthesis of collagen and glycosaminoglycans in cultured human dermal fibroblasts. Arch Dermatol Res. 1993;285(6):352-355. doi:10.1007/BF00371836



Vermeer C. Vitamin K: the effect on health beyond coagulation - an overview. Food Nutr Res. 2012;56:10.3402/fnr.v56i0.5329. doi:10.3402/fnr.v56i0.5329


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Sasaki N, Kusano E, Takahashi H, et al. Vitamin K2 inhibits glucocorticoid-induced bone loss partly by preventing the reduction of osteoprotegerin (OPG). J Bone Miner Metab. 2005;23(1):41-47. doi:10.1007/s00774-004-0539-6


Knapen MH, Schurgers LJ, Vermeer C. Vitamin K2 supplementation improves hip bone geometry and bone strength indices in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2007;18(7):963-972. doi:10.1007/s00198-007-0337-9


Forli L, Bollerslev J, Simonsen S, et al. Dietary vitamin K2 supplement improves bone status after lung and heart transplantation. Transplantation. 2010;89(4):458-464. doi:10.1097/TP.0b013e3181c46b69


Knapen MH, Drummen NE, Smit E, Vermeer C, Theuwissen E. Three-year low-dose menaquinone-7 supplementation helps decrease bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2013;24(9):2499-2507. doi:10.1007/s00198-013-2325-6


Mizuta T, Ozaki I, Eguchi Y, et al. The effect of menatetrenone, a vitamin K2 analog, on disease recurrence and survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after curative treatment: a pilot study. Cancer. 2006;106(4):867-872. doi:10.1002/cncr.21667


Ishizuka M, Kubota K, Shimoda M, et al. Effect of menatetrenone, a vitamin k2 analog, on recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after surgical resection: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Anticancer Res. 2012;32(12):5415-5420.


Hyung Jin Choi, Juyoun Yu, Hosanna Choi, Jee Hyun An, Sang Wan Kim, Kyong Soo Park, Hak C. Jang, Seong Yeon Kim, Chan Soo Shin, Vitamin K2 Supplementation Improves Insulin Sensitivity via Osteocalcin Metabolism: A Placebo-Controlled Trial, Diabetes Care Sep 2011, 34 (9) e147; DOI: 10.2337/dc11-0551


Presse N, Shatenstein B, Kergoat MJ, Ferland G. Low vitamin K intakes in community-dwelling elders at an early stage of Alzheimer's disease. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(12):2095-2099. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2008.09.013



Sayyah M, Olapour A, Saeedabad Ys, Yazdan Parast R, Malayeri A. Evaluation of oral zinc sulfate effect on obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Nutrition. 2012;28(9):892-895. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2011.11.027


Solati Z, Jazayeri S, Tehrani-Doost M, Mahmoodianfard S, Gohari MR. Zinc monotherapy increases serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and decreases depressive symptoms in overweight or obese subjects: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Nutr Neurosci. 2015;18(4):162-168. doi:10.1179/1476830513Y.0000000105


Hennig B, Toborek M, Mcclain CJ. Antiatherogenic properties of zinc: implications in endothelial cell metabolism. Nutrition. 1996;12(10):711-717. doi:10.1016/s0899-9007(96)00125-6


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Dreno B, Daniel F, Allaert FA, Aube I. Acne: evolution of the clinical practice and therapeutic management of acne between 1996 and 2000. Eur J Dermatol. 2003;13(2):166-170.


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Cranney A, Horsley T, O'Donnell S, et al. Effectiveness and safety of vitamin D in relation to bone health. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep). 2007;(158):1-235.

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Tian H, Guo X, Wang X, et al. Chromium picolinate supplementation for overweight or obese adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;2013(11):CD010063. Published 2013 Nov 29. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010063.pub2



Ujang Tinggi, Selenium: It’s role as antioxidant in human health, Environ Health Prev Med. 2008 Mar; 13(2): 102–108.

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Muecke R, Schomburg L, Glatzel M, et al. Multicenter, phase 3 trial comparing selenium supplementation with observation in gynecologic radiation oncology. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;78(3):828-835. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.08.013


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Kesse-Guyot E, Fezeu L, Jeandel C, et al. French adults' cognitive performance after daily supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals at nutritional doses: a post hoc analysis of the Supplementation in Vitamins and Mineral Antioxidants (SU.VI.MAX) trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94(3):892-899. doi:10.3945/ajcn.110.007815


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Selenium Supplementation in the Treatment of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: A Systematic Review and a Meta-analysis

Konstantinos A. Toulis, Athanasios D. Anastasilakis, Thrasivoulos G. Tzellos, Dimitrios G. Goulis, and Dimitrios Kouvelas

Thyroid 2010 20:10, 1163-1173


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